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Payroll Processing is as an essential business function.
It involves arriving at the ‘NET PAY of the employee after the adjustment of necessary taxes and deductions.
Operation of Payroll includes:
- To Establish Payroll Policies
- Define Pay Components
- Collection of Inputs
- Calculation and verification of Payout
- Processing of Salary
- Distribution of Pay Slip
- Tax Filling
- Accounting & Reporting
Payroll processing involves arriving at NET PAY of the employees after the adjustment of necessary taxes and deductions in other words it can also be expressed as :
Net Pay = Gross Income - Gross Deduction
Gross Income / Salary includes = Regular Income + allowances + One time payment or benefits
Gross deduction = Regular deduction + Statutory Deduction + One time Deduction.
Payroll processing helps the business in :
Manage your employees, right from their onboarding to exit, with simple tools like offer letter generator and CTC calculator. Also, employees can access payslips, make tax declarations and manage leaves directly from the self-serve portal.
Payroll automatically calculates and disburses salaries after considering leaves and statutory deductions. Due care is taken for:
- Accurate Return Filings for TDS, PF, PT and ESI
Delineating Payroll Policies:
Company's policies need to be properly defined and approved by the management to ensure standard payroll processing and administration. The aspects to be considered while processing payroll include:
The payroll process includes interacting with multiple departments and professionals to gather relevant information. Information require prior to payroll processing, inter alia includes:
It is essential to ensure adherence of the inputs to company policies, verifying investment declaration bills and reimbursement proofs and variable payout inputs. It is also necessary to ensure the record of employees in the payroll cycle is also updated.
The collected and validated input data is fed into payroll system for the actual payroll porcessing. This is done after evaluation of all the components including EPF, ESI, LWF, PT, Statutory Bonuses, Statutory Bindings and applicable taxes. In the end the Net Pay or Net Take Home Salary with adjusted taxes and other deductions is computed. The values are reconsiled to ensure accuracy of data and to prevent occurance of errors.
Payroll reconciliation ensures perodic tax deposits and tax forms to prevent any fines and legal trobules.
After completion of the payroll company has to ensure that it's bank account has sufficient funds for salary payment. Various details - employee name & ID, bank account number, PF details, and the amount of wages are sent to the concerned branch through a salary bank advice statement.
After making all the statutory deductions like EPF, TDS, ESI, LWF, and PT at the time of processing payroll, the company remits the amount to the respective government agencies. The payment of dues is made via challans. Various reports on Quarterly / Half-yearly /Annual basis are filed and submitted to the respective government bodies.
It is essential to ensure that all salary and reimbursement information is fed accurately into the accounting/ERP system as part of the payroll management process.
Department-wise and location-wise employee costs are analyzed to plan for the next month and submitted to the finance and senior management team. A close track is kept of liabilities such as leave encashments, gratuity liabilities, and bonus liabilities.
The payroll components consist of ‘taxable’ and ‘tax-exempt’, variable, constant pay, earnings, some allowances and deductions. Significant components of payroll are:
When new recruits join the company, a total salary package is offered to them. CTC, short for Cost To Company, is the term for the same, used in countries such as India and South Africa. It delineates the overall amount of expenses that an employer spends on an employee in a span of one year.
This is the base pay defined by the central and respective state governments that every working professional is expected to earn prior to including any added benefits, bonus, profits, and compensation or deducting tax and penalty payments.
The components of Gross Salary include Basic Pay, HRA, Special Allowance, Conveyance Allowance, Educational Allowance, Medical Allowance, and Leave Travel Allowance.
Net Take Home Salary
Net Salary or Take Home Salary is the actual pay that an employee takes home. This is calculated by subtracting the total deductions for the employee such as Income Tax, Employee PF Contribution, Notice Pay Recovery from the Gross Earnings for the month.
Dearness Allowance (DA)
Dearness Allowance is calculated as a percentage of an Indian citizen’s basic salary to mitigate the impact of inflation on people.
There are some other types of allowances that may be fixed or variable. These allowances are generally included in the pay structure to leverage the benefits of various tax saving schemes. There are different categories of special allowances such as:
Examples of Other Allowances/ Reimbursement Exempt Under Section 10 (5)
EPF (Employees’ Provident Fund) Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) is a scheme in which the retirement benefits of working professionals are accumulated. Under the scheme, an employer has to contribute 12% of the Gross Earnings towards the scheme and an equal contribution is paid by the employee. The total collection is then deposited into the employee’s EPF account. Any contribution made by the employer is not accounted for in taxable income upto a limit of INR 2.5 lakhs per year w.e.f. 1st April 2021. Employee PF contribution is also subject to deduction under section 80(c).
LWF (Labor Welfare Funds) ESI stands for Employee State Insurance, managed by the Employee State Insurance Corporation which is an autonomous body created by the law under the Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India. This scheme is a self-financed health insurance started for Indian workers. Every month, employers and employees have to make a nominal contribution for the employee to enjoy the ESI benefits.
Professional Taxes Professional tax is the tax levied and collected by the state governments in India. It is an indirect tax, only applicable in select states. Just like TDS, PT is deducted from an employee’s salary. PT deducted from an employee’s salary is also exempted from taxable income for the assessment year.
TDS (Tax Deducted At Source) The concept of TDS was introduced with an aim to collect tax from the very source of income. As per this concept, a person (deductor) who is liable to make payment of specified nature to any other person (deductee) shall deduct tax at source and remit the same into the account of the Central Government. The concept of TDS also extends to the salary paid by the employer to an employee. Employers are expected to consider all investments made by the employee and adjust income or loss from sources such as House Rent before computing the final TDS. Employers are expected to deposit the deducted TDS to the government on a monthly basis and file the TDS return on a quarterly basis.
Statutory Bonus As a reward for accomplishing or overachieving the work targets, employees receive additional amounts called bonus with their base monthly salaries, as part of their wages. An employer is expected to comply with the Bonus Act, 1965 to be able to pay a bonus. To an eligible employee who earns between INR 7,000 to INR 21,000 (Basic +DA) on a monthly basis, the employer pays a minimum of 8.33% and maximum 20% of the employee’s salary earned during the relevant accounting year.
Gratuity In case an employee parts away from the organization, under The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, an employer is expected to pay an employee 15 days of salary for every completed year. This computation needs to be done as per the employee’s last drawn salary. An employee is only eligible for Gratuity if he/she has completed 5 years of service with a single organization. Any payment done under Gratuity is exempted for upto INR 20 lakhs for a lifetime.
Leave Encashments A category of leaves such as the earned leaves which are not availed by an employee within a particular period can be encashed. The accumulated leaves are usually encashed at the time of Full & Final Settlement or after every financial year. The amount paid under Leave Encashments is exempted from taxable income under special constraints defined by the government.
NPS (National Pension Scheme) The National Pension System is a voluntary defined contribution pension system in India. National Pension System is an EEE (Exempt-Exempt-Exempt) instrument in India where the entire corpus escapes tax at maturity and the entire pension withdrawal amount is tax-free. In addition to this, there are multiple tax benefits under 80CCD that an employee can enjoy.
Reimbursement is the act of compensating an employee for business-related expenses incurred by an employee. Various types of reimbursements can be: